A facial cleft is an opening or gap in the face , or a malformation of a part of the face. Facial clefts is a collective term for all sorts of clefts. All structures like bone, soft tissue, skin etc. Facial clefts are extremely rare congenital anomalies. There are many variations of a type of clefting and classifications are needed to describe and classify all types of clefting. Facial clefts hardly ever occur isolated; most of the time there is an overlap of adjacent facial clefts.
Rare Craniofacial Clefts
Tessier Facial Clefts - Treatment and Surgery
Skip to content. What are rare craniofacial clefts Rare craniofacial clefts are severe deformities of the face and head that affect both bones and soft tissues. Rare craniofacial clefts occur in about 1 in every , births. These clefts are present in various syndromes, but can also occur unrelated to a syndrome. These clefts are named and numbered for the anatomy affected and include clefts of the lip, mid-face, orbit the eye socket , mandible and cranium. Clefts 0 — 7 typically involve the lower face below the mid axis of the eye , while clefts 8 — 14 involve the upper face above the mid axis of the eye and cranium. In some cases, different types of clefts occur together, with a cleft of the lower face continuing into a cleft of the upper face.
Facial clefts and facial dysplasia: revisiting the classification
The result is a gap in the fetal face. These clefts can affect the lip, philtrum, alveolus, and hard and soft palate to varying degrees. Overall there is a broad spectrum of severity ranging from minimal defects e. The estimated incidence of isolated facial clefts may be as high as 1 in births 1. Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys.
Most craniofacial malformations are identified by their appearance. The majority of the classification systems are mainly clinical or anatomical, not related to the different levels of development of the malformation, and underlying pathology is usually not taken into consideration. In , Tessier first emphasized the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying bone stating that "a fissure of the soft tissue corresponds, as a general rule, with a cleft of the bony structure". He introduced a cleft numbering system around the orbit from 0 to 14 depending on its relationship to the zero line ie, the vertical midline cleft of the face. The classification, easy to understand, became widely accepted because the recording of the malformations was simple and communication between observers facilitated.